Dyspepsia

Dyspepsia is a feeling of indigestion of food or upset stomach associated with symptoms like intermittent upper abdominal pain, bloating, belching, burping, nausea, heartburn, reflux, quick feeling of full when eating, etc. It can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal conditions or functional. Functional dyspepsia means you have the symptoms of dyspepsia but current available tests are not able to find a pathological condition to explain the symptoms.

Diseases are associated with dyspepsia

The common digestive disorders that cause dyspepsia are:

Sometimes, systemic problems, such as depression, thyroid problems, cancer, pregnancy, heart disease, diabetes, etc, can produce dyspepsia, as well as some medications. For functional dyspepsia, it can be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its mechanisms are still not understood.

Diagnosis and Treatment of dyspepsia

Diagnosis of dyspepsia is generally based on clinical presentation and one or more of the following tests:

  • Blood works
  • Stool studies
  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • CT
  • Endoscopy

Treatment is usually based on the underlying cause. For functional dyspepsia, can give a try of PPI, acupuncture, cognitive behavior therapy, etc.

References:

  1. PubMed Health.
  2. Wikipedia.
  3. Mayo clinic online health information.
  4. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease- by Mark Feldman MD, et al.
  5. The Little Black Book of Gastroenterology-by David W. Hay.
  6. Principles of Clinical Gastroenterology by Tadataka Yamada, et al.


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